Structure of the nails

Image: © Igor Stepovik / Fotolia

The nails are skin growths composed of keratin. The nail plate covers the ends of the fingers under which there are many blood vessels and nerve endings. Unlike the skin the nails are only fed when they grow up. At the rear is located the back nail cushion, follows the nail plate, the lateral axilla of the nail, then the transverse furrow of the nail, on top is the coating of the nail, behind are located the cuticles, on the sides are located recesses, followed by the side cushions of the nail, at the front is the free end of the nail, which we shape as manicure, and at the back under the skin is the root of the nail.

The health and beauty of the nails always depends on the quality and reliability of the instruments that are used in the making of the manicure. For the making of manicure are used cuticle scissors, grips for the harder side formations, nail file, blade for pushing the skin and to peel the cuticles, chisel for cutting cuticles and others. The files are today made ​​of different materials, paper with crystal, wood, ceramics, glass and metal. The scissors also have different forms depending on their purpose. To the instruments belongs and the ultraviolet lamp for drying of the manicure.

To create a nice manicure are used various materials and tools such as nail polish, resin, solvents, gels and other agents that nourish the manicure. The polishes are several types – basis, matt, pearl, cream polish, hypoallergenic, transparent, nail polish for drawing, changing lacquer, polish with different effects, disco polish, quick drying and more.

The ordinary polish is the most commonly used and in its use are applied two coats of it. The nail base is usually used for the alignment of the nail and in most cases it is transparent or pink. The transparent polish is used for base or coating, it protects the nails and gives them shine and makes the colored polish more brilliant and intense, it is composed of aniline dyes. The fast drying polishes dry for about 1 minute. The polishes with glitter are transparent varnishes with brilliant forms, which may be of different colors and sizes. The matt polishes have a smooth, dense structure and no shine after application. Hypoallergenic varnishes are for people who have problems with allergies to different acetone products and one can find them in pharmacies. The chameleon varnish – polish that changes its color depending on the angle you are watching it from. Aquarelle lacquer is used for French manicure and it may have different shades to give the manicure wet shine, with this polish you can create different compositions. There is also a polish having an effect of old porcelain, it gives to the manicure decorative cracks that occur 3 seconds after application, thus obtaining an original effect. Disco varnishes under ultraviolet light glow with different colors, so the manicure looks more spectacular. Varnishes for painting have a more dense structure, while others have more liquid structure, and there are those which are used in the nail art drawing.

The acrylic paint is often used when making drawings on the manicure. It is prepared of aqueous base, so it has a saturated color but it is easily removed from the nail, so on top of this paint should be applied fastening means.

To remove the nail polish is required a special liquid called nail polish remover. It is better to use such type that does not contain acetone and amyl acetate because these components are harmful for the nails. The qualitative nail polish removers contain karst and other oils that soften the effect of the solvent. For very sensitive and fragile nails must be used only harmless nail polish removers.

According to the latest advice of the experts, today is recommended the removal of the cuticles to be undertaken not with tongs but with special gels that are simple to use, but are also harmless. These gels are applied to the cuticles and after 3-4 minutes, with a wooden scoop the cuticle is removed.

The oils for nails are an integral part when shaping the manicure. They soften the skin and are especially recommended for hands with dry skin. The oils which are used for nourishment must be karstic, peach, olive, or sunflower and they can be also used in the warm bath for the hands.


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